UNDERSTANDING THE TERMS

Glossary

4G

5G

Access Point

Band

4G is the fourth generation of broadband cellular network technology, succeeding 3G. 

5G is the fifth generation cellular network technology.5G brings three new aspects to the table: greater speed (to move more data), lower latency (to be more responsive), and the ability to connect a lot more devices at once (for sensors and smart devices).

A wireless access point (WAP), or more generally just access point (AP), is a networking hardware device that allows other Wi-Fi devices to connect to a wired network. The AP usually connects to a router (via a wired network) as a standalone device, but it can also be an integral component of the router itself. An AP is differentiated from a hotspot, which is the physical location where Wi-Fi access to a WLAN is available.

A frequency band is an interval in the frequency domain, delimited by a lower frequency and an upper frequency. The term may refer to a radio band or an interval of some other spectrum.

Band 48

Band 48 CBRS (Citizens Broadband Radio Service) is often referred to as the private LTE. It is the frequency band of 3.5GHz, operating in the LTE spectrum in the United States. LTE was designed to work across a wide range of frequency bands (450 MHz up to 3.8GHz)

Bandwidth

Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous band of frequencies. It is typically measured in hertz. A key characteristic of bandwidth is that any band of a given width can carry the same amount of information, regardless of where that band is located in the frequency spectrum.

Base Station

In wireless communications it is a transceiver connecting a number of other devices to one another and/or to a wider area.
In a computer network, it is a transceiver acting as a switch for computers in the network, possibly connecting them to a/another local area network and/or the Internet. 

Carrier

Carrier is a provider of wireless communications services that owns or controls all the elements necessary to sell and deliver services to an end user including radio spectrum allocation, wireless network infrastructure, back haul infrastructure, billing, customer care, provisioning computer systems and marketing and repair organizations.

Carrier Integration

Mobile network integration services includes: GU network new-build / expansion / swap, LTE/ VoLTE integration, HetNet integration, refarming, antenna convergence, accurate planning, service experience oriented planning & optimization, brand ranking improvement planning & optimization,  to help customers improve network quality and investment efficiency for business success.

CBRS

Band 48 CBRS (Citizens Broadband Radio Service) is often referred to as the private LTE. It is the frequency band of 3.5GHz, operating in the LTE spectrum in the United States. LTE was designed to work across a wide range of frequency bands (450 MHz up to 3.8GHz)

CBSD

Citizens Broadband Radio Service Device, a Base Station aka small cells, for CBRS.  It is called an access Point in the WiFi world

Cellular

A cellular network or mobile network is a communication network where the last link is wireless. The network is distributed over land areas called "cells", each served by at least one fixed-location transceiver, but more normally, three cell sites or base transceiver stations. These base stations provide the cell with the network coverage which can be used for transmission of voice, data, and other types of content. A cell typically uses a different set of frequencies from neighbouring cells, to avoid interference and provide guaranteed service quality within each cell.

CMRS

Commercial Mobile Radio Services (CMRS) is an FCC designation for any carrier or licensee whose wireless network is connected to the public switched telephone network and/or is operated for profit.

CRE

Commercial Real Estate.  We define commercial real estate as any non-residential property used for commercial profit-making purposes including stores, malls, office buildings, and industrial parks.  

DEVICE

A device could be computing device like a mobile (or handheld computer) small enough to hold and operate in the hand. Typically, any handheld computer device will have an LCD FHD or OLED flatscreen interface, providing a touchscreen interface with digital buttons and keyboard or physical buttons along with a physical keyboard. Many such devices can connect to the Internet and interconnect with other devices such as car entertainment systems or headsets via Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, cellular networks, near field communication (NFC). Integrated cameras, digital media players, the ability to place and receive telephone calls, video games, and Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities are common. Power is typically provided by a lithium battery. Mobile devices may run mobile operating systems that allow third-party apps specialized for said capabilities to be installed and run.

DISTRIBUTED ANTENNA SYSTEM

A distributed antenna system, or DAS, is a network of spatially separated antenna nodes connected to a common source via a transport medium that provides wireless service within a geographic area or structure. A distributed antenna system may be deployed indoors (an iDAS) or outdoors (an oDAS).

EDGE COMPUTING

Edge computing in IT is defined as the deployment of data-handling activities or other network operations away from centralized and always-connected network segments, and toward individual sources of data capture, such as endpoints like laptops, tablets or smartphones.

EPOC

EPOC, now called Symbian OS, is an operating system optimized for mobile phone/PDA uses. It was developed by Symbian which is a joint company of Psion, Nokia, Ericsson, Motorola and Matsushita (Panasonic). EPOC turns voice-oriented handsets into Mediaphones and Wireless Information Devices. EPOC places a lighter load on the processor compared to present PDA operating systems and thus has the capacity to enhance the multimedia capacity of mobile phones.

ETHERNET

Ethernet is a way of connecting computers together in a local area network or LAN. It has been the most widely used method of linking computers together in LANs since the 1990s. The basic idea of its design is that multiple computers have access to it and can send data at any time. This is comparatively easy to engineer.

EPC

Evolved Packet Core (EPC) is a framework for providing converged voice and data on a 4G Long-Term Evolution (LTE) network.Evolved Packet Core unifies voice and data on an Internet Protocol (IP ) service architecture and voice is treated as just another IP application. This allows operators to deploy and operate one packet network for 2G, 3G, WLAN, WiMAX, LTE and fixed access (Ethernet, DSL, cable and fiber).

FCC

Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is the regulatory body governing communications technologies in the US. established by the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, and regulates interstate communications (wire, radio, telephone, telegraph and telecommunications) originating in the United States.

HUB

In network science, a hub is a node with a number of links that greatly exceeds the average. A hub is a component of a network with a high-degree node. Hubs have a significantly larger number of links in comparison with other nodes in the network.

HYBRID NETWORKS

Monolithic and homogeneous networks are no longer capable to address our growing and increasingly diverse connectivity needs. With hybrid networks, evolution to new technologies is not about rip and replace: it is about flexible and dynamic integration and coexistence to  protect legacy networks and ensure service continuity.

GATEWAY

A gateway is a piece of networking hardware used in telecommunications for telecommunications networks that allows data to flow from one discrete network to another. Gateways are distinct from routers or switches in that they communicate using more than one protocol.

INTERCONNECT AGREEMENT

An interconnect agreement is a business contract between telecommunications organizations for the purpose of interconnecting their networks and exchanging telecommunications traffic. Interconnect agreements are found both in the public switched telephone network and the Internet. Interconnect agreements are typically complex contractual agreements involving payment schemes and schedules, coordination of routing policies, acceptable use policies, traffic balancing requirements, technical standards, coordination of network operations, dispute resolution, etc. 

IoT

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.

LATENCY

Latency is a time interval between the stimulation and response, or, from a more general point of view, a time delay between the cause and the effect of some physical change in the system being observed. Latency is physically a consequence of the limited velocity with which any physical interaction can propagate. The magnitude of this velocity is always less than or equal to the speed of light. Therefore, every physical system with any physical separation (distance) between cause and effect will experience some sort of latency, regardless of the nature of stimulation that it has been exposed to.

MACRO SITES

Traditional macro sites are installed on rooftops, building facades monopoles and other steel structures. These traditional deployments provide coverage over a broad area (up to several miles in some instances) while handling capacity demands from many mobile device users.

mmWAVE

Extremely high frequency (EHF) is the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) designation for the band of radio frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum from 30 to 300 gigahertz (GHz). It lies between the super high frequency band, and the far infrared band, the lower part of which is also referred to as the terahertz gap. Radio waves in this band have wavelengths from ten to one millimetre, so it is also called the millimetre band and radiation in this band is called millimetre waves, sometimes abbreviated MMW or mmW or mmWave. 

MOCN

MOCN stands for Multiple Operator Core Network. In this, two or more core networks share the same Radio Access network. Basic idea of this is to share Access Network part (NodeB, eNodeB) between two or more network operators. 

NETWORK SLICING

Network slicing is the separation of multiple virtual networks that operate on the same physical hardware for different applications, services or purposes. ... The slices that occupy a single physical network are separated, meaning traffic and security breaches from one slice cannot interfere with another slice.The key benefits include: Greater elasticity, robustness, secure and stable operations through the compartmentalization of the network, applied end-to-end.

NEUTRAL HOST

Neutral host infrastructure comprises a single, shared network solution provided on an open access basis to all Mobile Network Operators and is used to resolve poor wireless coverage and capacity inside large venues or other busy locations. They are usually deployed, maintained and operated by a third-party provider and they are designed to support the full range of MNO technologies. Unlike vertically integrated networks that accommodate one technology or a single MNO’s requirement, neutral host infrastructure is a shared platform, capable of supporting all MNOs and technologies giving their customers what they are looking for - seamless coverage and high capacity.

QUALITY OF SERVICE

Quality of service refers to traffic prioritization and resource reservation control mechanisms. It is the ability to provide different priority to different applications, users, or data flows, or to guarantee a certain level of performance to a data flow. Quality of service is particularly important for the transport of traffic with special requirements. In particular, developers have introduced Voice over IP technology to allow computer networks to become as useful as telephone networks for audio conversations, as well as supporting new applications with even stricter network performance requirements.

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